The ruler of Alba at the beginning of 997 was King Constantine III, who had ruled since 995. This year, King Kenneth III (Kenneth the Brown) would take over.
The ruler of Deheubarth was King Maredudd ab Owain ap Hywel, who had ruled since 986 and would continue to do so until 999.
The ruler of England was King Æthelræd II (Æthelred the Unready), who had ruled since 978 and would continue to do so until 1013.
This year was the last year of the rule of King Malcolm map Dyfnwal.