The ruler of Alba was King Malcolm II (Malcolm the Destroyer), who had ruled since 1005 and would continue to do so until 1034.
King Edwin ab Einion ab Owain ruled jointly with his brother, King Cadell ab Einion ab Owain .
The ruler of England at the beginning of 1016 was King Æthelræd II (Æthelred the Unready), who had ruled since 1014. This year, King Cnut (Cnut the Great) would take over.
The ruler of Gwynedd was King Aeddan ap Blegywryd, who had ruled since 1005 and would continue to do so until 1018.
The ruler of Moray was Mormaer Findláech mac Ruaidrí (probably, the start of his reign is shrouded in mystery).
The ruler of Strathclyde at this time was likely to have been King Owain Foel.